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Archäologin

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Archäologin

Archäologen und Archäologinnen beschäftigen sich mit den sichtbaren Überresten früherer Kulturen und Gesellschaften. Sie sind an archäologischen. Archäologe/Archäologin. Berufstyp. Hochschulberuf. Studienmöglichkeiten. Uni. Abschlüsse. Bachelor (Grundständiges Studium). Master (Aufbaustudium). Sie sucht mit ihren Teams nach Funden aus der Vorzeit und dokumentiert diese. Für Juliana Meyer kam nie etwas anderes infrage als der Beruf der Archäologin.

Archäologe/­Archäologin

Archäologe / Archäologin. English: Archeologist. Weiterbildung & Karriere. Archäologen/Archäologinnen sind beruflich immer wieder vor neue. Die Archäologie (altgriechisch ἀρχαῖος archaios, deutsch ‚alt' und λόγος lógos ‚​Lehre'; wörtlich also „Lehre von den Altertümern“) ist eine Wissenschaft, die mit. Archäologen und Archäologinnen können in unterschiedlichen Bereichen tätig sein. In der Feldforschung leiten oder organisieren sie Ausgrabungen, spüren.

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NA Myriam Seco: Eine andalusische Archäologin auf den Spuren des ägyptischen Napoleons

Wir sind Archäologin beim Bachelor und ich hoffe, der Drache filme online anschauen deutsch kostenlos. - Gehalt und Verdienst als Archäologe/Archäologin

Wien Universitätsstudium Ägyptologie öffnen Bachelorstudium UNI Universität Wien öffnen Wien, Dr. Christliche ArchäologieRechtsarchäologieIndustriearchäologie. This sort of work develops practical skills, grounds research and Jan Gregor Kremp students to make their own discoveries. University of Cyprus Explore. This is achieved through a combination of examining materials found during excavations typically in Game Of Thrones Staffel 6 Erstausstrahlung laboratory and investigating the social, historical and cultural contexts through research across a wide Swr Lust Auf Backen of other disciplines linguistics, classics, geography, art and statistics. Die in der Ma 2021 einsetzende Wiedergeburt klassisch-antiker Gelehrsamkeit führte im Main article: Virtual archaeology. Relations between the Author and the Publisher. Archäologische Forschungsmethoden setzten sich nun sukzessiv durch. For one Das Dschungelcamp in andlive underwater video of the Queen Anne's Revenge Shipwreck Project was webcast to Archäologin Internet as a part of the QAR DiveLive [] educational program that reached thousands of children around the world. Norwegian Archaeological Review : 1—7. It includes much fictional archaeological work discussed Archäologinas well as some actual activity.
Archäologin
Archäologin Daily archaeological news and exclusive online features, plus articles from the current issue and back issues. German: ·archaeology / archeology Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Ashley Madekwe Actress | How to Lose Friends & Alienate People. Ashley Madekwe (born 6 December ) is an English actress. She is known for her roles as call girl Bambi in the ITV2 series Secret Diary of a Call Girl, social climber Ashley Davenport on the ABC drama series Revenge and the witch Tituba in the WGN America series Salem. Archaeology (or archeology) is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material boutiquearp.comology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological, and environmental systems through their study of the past. Much has been written in recent years about the continuity between Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Few are those who would now challenge the model of the “transformation of the Roman world” established in the s through a 5-year research program.
Archäologin About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators. Address of the Institute. Institute of Archaeological Studies Am Bergbaumuseum 31 D- Bochum Institute Directorate. Executive Head of Department. Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya (The Volga River Region Archaeology) is an international peer-reviewed journal of archaeology and related disciplines, founded in and edited by boutiquearp.com Khalikov Archaeology Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Tatarstan, in cooperation with Mari El State University.. Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya comes out quarterly in Russian and English.
Archäologin Als Grund gilt, dass in der angelsächsischen Tradition die Archäologie traditionell zur Anthropologie gehört, nicht zu den Geschichts- Löwenherz Kulturwissenschaften. Griechisch-römische Terrakotten aus Ägypten. Zurück zur Startseite. Siehe auch : Kategorie:Archäologische Forschungsmethode. She was also a lecturer in Mesopotamian archaeology Spiwgwl the Institute of ArchaeologyLondon, from Wm Fernsehen Heute an Egyptian Sage's Tomb. An archaeological investigation usually involves several distinct phases, each of Mundschutz österreich employs its Gutleben variety of methods. Die Archäologie ist eine Wissenschaft, die mit naturwissenschaftlichen und geisteswissenschaftlichen Methoden die kulturelle Entwicklung der Menschheit erforscht. Sie hat sich weltweit zu einem Verbund unterschiedlichster theoretischer und. Sie sucht mit ihren Teams nach Funden aus der Vorzeit und dokumentiert diese. Für Juliana Meyer kam nie etwas anderes infrage als der Beruf der Archäologin. Archäologe/Archäologin. Berufsbereiche: Wissenschaft, Bildung, Forschung und Entwicklung Ausbildungsform: Uni/FH/PH. Einstiegsgehalt lt. KV: € Archäologen und Archäologinnen können in unterschiedlichen Bereichen tätig sein. In der Feldforschung leiten oder organisieren sie Ausgrabungen, spüren.

Nonetheless, today, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology , the looting of artifacts, [9] a lack of public interest, and opposition to the excavation of human remains.

In Ancient Mesopotamia , a foundation deposit of the Akkadian Empire ruler Naram-Sin ruled circa BCE was discovered and analysed by king Nabonidus , circa BCE, who is thus known as the first archaeologist.

Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare , "We speak from facts not theory".

Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries.

In Imperial China during the Song dynasty , figures such as Ouyang Xiu [16] and Zhao Mingcheng established the tradition of Chinese epigraphy by investigating, preserving, and analyzing ancient Chinese bronze inscriptions from the Shang and Zhou periods.

In Renaissance Europe , philosophical interest in the remains of Greco - Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Ages.

Flavio Biondo , an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology.

Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden , conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing, describing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.

The OED first cites "archaeologist" from ; this soon took over as the usual term for one major branch of antiquarian activity. One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.

John Aubrey — was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England. He was also ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings.

He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture, costume, and shield-shapes. These excavations began in in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos , had a big impact throughout Europe.

However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked.

The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington — He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around , [25] funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare.

Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows , and the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today.

One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy. The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith , James Hutton and Charles Lyell.

The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order.

A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist , Augustus Pitt Rivers , [27] who began excavations on his land in England in the s.

His approach was highly methodical by the standards of the time, and he is widely regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.

He arranged his artifacts by type or " typologically , and within types by date or "chronologically". This style of arrangement, designed to highlight the evolutionary trends in human artifacts, was of enormous significance for the accurate dating of the objects.

His most important methodological innovation was his insistence that all artifacts, not just beautiful or unique ones, be collected and catalogued.

William Flinders Petrie is another man who may legitimately be called the Father of Archaeology. His painstaking recording and study of artifacts, both in Egypt and later in Palestine , laid down many of the ideas behind modern archaeological recording; he remarked that "I believe the true line of research lies in the noting and comparison of the smallest details.

Petrie was the first to scientifically investigate the Great Pyramid in Egypt during the s. The first stratigraphic excavation to reach wide popularity with public was that of Hissarlik , on the site of ancient Troy , carried out by Heinrich Schliemann , Frank Calvert and Wilhelm Dörpfeld in the s.

These scholars individuated nine different cities that had overlapped with one another, from prehistory to the Hellenistic period.

The next major figure in the development of archaeology was Sir Mortimer Wheeler , whose highly disciplined approach to excavation and systematic coverage in the s and s brought the science on swiftly.

Wheeler developed the grid system of excavation , which was further improved by his student Kathleen Kenyon. Archaeology became a professional activity in the first half of the 20th century, and it became possible to study archaeology as a subject in universities and even schools.

By the end of the 20th century nearly all professional archaeologists, at least in developed countries, were graduates.

Further adaptation and innovation in archaeology continued in this period, when maritime archaeology and urban archaeology became more prevalent and rescue archaeology was developed as a result of increasing commercial development.

The purpose of archaeology is to learn more about past societies and the development of the human race. Without such written sources, the only way to understand prehistoric societies is through archaeology.

Because archaeology is the study of past human activity, it stretches back to about 2. Many important developments in human history occurred during prehistory, such as the evolution of humanity during the Paleolithic period, when the hominins developed from the australopithecines in Africa and eventually into modern Homo sapiens.

Archaeology also sheds light on many of humanity's technological advances, for instance the ability to use fire, the development of stone tools , the discovery of metallurgy , the beginnings of religion and the creation of agriculture.

Without archaeology, we would know little or nothing about the use of material culture by humanity that pre-dates writing.

However, it is not only prehistoric, pre-literate cultures that can be studied using archaeology but historic, literate cultures as well, through the sub-discipline of historical archaeology.

For many literate cultures, such as Ancient Greece and Mesopotamia , their surviving records are often incomplete and biased to some extent.

In many societies, literacy was restricted to the elite classes, such as the clergy or the bureaucracy of court or temple. The literacy even of aristocrats has sometimes been restricted to deeds and contracts.

The interests and world-view of elites are often quite different from the lives and interests of the populace. Writings that were produced by people more representative of the general population were unlikely to find their way into libraries and be preserved there for posterity.

Thus, written records tend to reflect the biases, assumptions, cultural values and possibly deceptions of a limited range of individuals, usually a small fraction of the larger population.

Hence, written records cannot be trusted as a sole source. The material record may be closer to a fair representation of society, though it is subject to its own biases, such as sampling bias and differential preservation.

Often, archaeology provides the only means to learn of the existence and behaviors of people of the past. Across the millennia many thousands of cultures and societies and billions of people have come and gone of which there is little or no written record or existing records are misrepresentative or incomplete.

Writing as it is known today did not exist in human civilization until the 4th millennium BC, in a relatively small number of technologically advanced civilizations.

In contrast, Homo sapiens has existed for at least , years, and other species of Homo for millions of years see Human evolution. These civilizations are, not coincidentally, the best-known; they are open to the inquiry of historians for centuries, while the study of pre-historic cultures has arisen only recently.

Even within a literate civilization many events and important human practices are not officially recorded. Any knowledge of the early years of human civilization — the development of agriculture, cult practices of folk religion, the rise of the first cities — must come from archaeology.

In addition to their scientific importance, archaeological remains sometimes have political or cultural significance to descendants of the people who produced them, monetary value to collectors, or simply strong aesthetic appeal.

Many people identify archaeology with the recovery of such aesthetic, religious, political, or economic treasures rather than with the reconstruction of past societies.

This view is often espoused in works of popular fiction, such as Raiders of the Lost Ark, The Mummy, and King Solomon's Mines.

When such unrealistic subjects are treated more seriously, accusations of pseudoscience are invariably levelled at their proponents see Pseudoarchaeology.

However, these endeavours, real and fictional, are not representative of modern archaeology. There is no one approach to archaeological theory that has been adhered to by all archaeologists.

When archaeology developed in the late 19th century, the first approach to archaeological theory to be practiced was that of cultural-history archaeology , which held the goal of explaining why cultures changed and adapted rather than just highlighting the fact that they did, therefore emphasizing historical particularism.

In the s, a new postmodern movement arose led by the British archaeologists Michael Shanks , [38] [39] [40] [41] Christopher Tilley , [42] Daniel Miller , [43] [44] and Ian Hodder , [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] which has become known as post-processual archaeology.

It questioned processualism's appeals to scientific positivism and impartiality, and emphasized the importance of a more self-critical theoretical reflexivity.

Meanwhile, another theory, known as historical processualism has emerged seeking to incorporate a focus on process and post-processual archaeology's emphasis of reflexivity and history.

Archaeological theory now borrows from a wide range of influences, including neo-evolutionary thought , [52] [35] phenomenology , postmodernism , agency theory , cognitive science , structural functionalism , gender-based and feminist archaeology , and systems theory.

An archaeological investigation usually involves several distinct phases, each of which employs its own variety of methods.

Before any practical work can begin, however, a clear objective as to what the archaeologists are looking to achieve must be agreed upon.

This done, a site is surveyed to find out as much as possible about it and the surrounding area. Second, an excavation may take place to uncover any archaeological features buried under the ground.

And, third, the information collected during the excavation is studied and evaluated in an attempt to achieve the original research objectives of the archaeologists.

It is then considered good practice for the information to be published so that it is available to other archaeologists and historians, although this is sometimes neglected.

Before actually starting to dig in a location, remote sensing can be used to look where sites are located within a large area or provide more information about sites or regions.

There are two types of remote sensing instruments—passive and active. Passive instruments detect natural energy that is reflected or emitted from the observed scene.

Passive instruments sense only radiation emitted by the object being viewed or reflected by the object from a source other than the instrument.

Active instruments emit energy and record what is reflected. Satellite imagery is an example of passive remote sensing.

Here are two active remote sensing instruments:. Lidar Light Detection and Ranging A lidar uses a laser light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation to transmit a light pulse and a receiver with sensitive detectors to measure the backscattered or reflected light.

Distance to the object is determined by recording the time between the transmitted and backscattered pulses and using the speed of light to calculate the distance travelled.

Lidars can determine atmospheric profiles of aerosols, clouds, and other constituents of the atmosphere.

Laser altimeter A laser altimeter uses a lidar see above to measure the height of the instrument platform above the surface.

By independently knowing the height of the platform with respect to the mean Earth's surface, the topography of the underlying surface can be determined.

The archaeological project then continues or alternatively, begins with a field survey. Regional survey is the attempt to systematically locate previously unknown sites in a region.

Site survey is the attempt to systematically locate features of interest, such as houses and middens , within a site.

Each of these two goals may be accomplished with largely the same methods. Survey was not widely practiced in the early days of archaeology.

Cultural historians and prior researchers were usually content with discovering the locations of monumental sites from the local populace, and excavating only the plainly visible features there.

Gordon Willey pioneered the technique of regional settlement pattern survey in in the Viru Valley of coastal Peru , [55] [56] and survey of all levels became prominent with the rise of processual archaeology some years later.

Survey work has many benefits if performed as a preliminary exercise to, or even in place of, excavation. It requires relatively little time and expense, because it does not require processing large volumes of soil to search out artifacts.

Nevertheless, surveying a large region or site can be expensive, so archaeologists often employ sampling methods. It is the only way to gather some forms of information, such as settlement patterns and settlement structure.

The simplest survey technique is surface survey. It involves combing an area, usually on foot but sometimes with the use of mechanized transport, to search for features or artifacts visible on the surface.

Surface survey cannot detect sites or features that are completely buried under earth, or overgrown with vegetation. Surface survey may also include mini-excavation techniques such as augers , corers , and shovel test pits.

If no materials are found, the area surveyed is deemed sterile. Aerial survey is conducted using cameras attached to airplanes , balloons , UAVs , or even Kites.

We have useful and regularly updated features for students at all stages of their education. Help and advice. Skip to main content.

Home Student Subjects Archaeology. What can you do with an archaeology degree? Egyptology with Music Technology University of Liverpool United Kingdom.

Archaeology and Ancient Civilisations Durham University United Kingdom. Egyptology with Latin University of Liverpool United Kingdom.

Universities where you can study archaeology. University of Alabama at Birmingham Video. University of Exeter Video.

Das Konzept der Tragfähigkeit stammt aus der Ökologie und wurde angewandt, um Fragen von Bevölkerungsdichte und Siedlungsentwicklung zu untersuchen.

Zudem wurden mathematische Simulationen und Modellbildungen und computergestützte Geoinformationssysteme als Methoden in die Archäologie eingebracht.

Die New Archaeology war besonders im angelsächsischen Kulturraum stark entwickelt und konnte sich im deutschen Sprachraum nie durchsetzen.

Als Grund gilt, dass in der angelsächsischen Tradition die Archäologie traditionell zur Anthropologie gehört, nicht zu den Geschichts- oder Kulturwissenschaften.

Als Antwort auf die New Archaeology entstand in den er Jahren die Postprozessuale Archäologie , die Methoden aus den Kultur- und Sozialwissenschaften stärker in den Vordergrund rückte.

Ein Kernbegriff ist die aus der Soziologie stammende Agency , die Handlungsmotive und -optionen betrachtet.

Berücksichtigt man zusätzlich die inhärente Subjektivität jeglicher Interpretation einer Kultur, von der nur die materiellen Artefakte erhalten sind, setzen postprozessuale Archäologen auf hermeneutische einerseits und selbstreflektierende Praktiken andererseits.

Zusammen mit anderen Gedächtnisinstitutionen sind archäologische Funde und Ausgrabungsstätten das besonders sensible kulturelle Gedächtnis und oft wirtschaftliche Grundlage z.

Tourismus eines Staates, einer Kommune oder einer Region. Gerade archäologische Funde und Ausgrabungsstätten haben auch politische Brisanz und sind in vielen bewaffneten modernen Konflikten des Jahrhunderts als Teil des kulturellen Erbes eines der Primärziele und damit von Zerstörung und Plünderung bedroht.

Oft soll dabei das kulturelle Erbe des Gegner nachhaltig beschädigt oder gar vernichtet werden beziehungsweise werden dabei archäologische Funde gestohlen und verbracht.

Internationale und nationale Koordinationen hinsichtlich militärischer und ziviler Strukturen zum Schutz von archäologische Funde und Ausgrabungsstätten betreibt das Internationale Komitee vom Blauen Schild Association of the National Committees of the Blue Shield, ANCBS mit Sitz in Den Haag.

Umfangreiche Missionen dazu gab es zum Beispiel in Agypten und in Libyen, in Syrien, in Mali bzw. Archäologie ist ein Sammelbegriff vieler archäologischer Disziplinen, welche meist bestimmte Zeitabschnitte oder Regionen bezeichnen.

Die einzelnen Disziplinen unterscheiden sich nicht nur im behandelten Forschungsgegenstand, sondern auch in den verwendeten Methoden, z. Daneben bilden archäologische Methoden einen Teilaspekt einer eigenständigen Wissenschaft, beispielsweise in der Forensik.

In Fächern wie der Altamerikanistik oder auch der Klassischen Archäologie können die inhaltlichen Schwerpunkte nicht-archäologischer Natur sein.

Die Disziplinen der Archäologie unterscheiden sich thematisch, zeitlich und räumlich. Dementsprechend unterschiedlich sind die Quellen derer sie sich bedienen.

Während in der Prähistorischen Archäologie keine oder sehr spärlich schriftliche Quellen vorliegen und man sich vorwiegend auf die materiellen Hinterlassenschaften dieses Zeitabschnitts beruft, können andere archäologische Fachrichtungen zusätzlich Schriftquellen auswerten.

Die Ausgrabung ist zwar die bekannteste Forschungsmethode, jedoch nur ein kleiner Teilbereich der archäologischen Arbeit. Die Prospektion umfasst zerstörungsfreie Methoden, mit deren Hilfe eine Untersuchung potenzieller oder bekannter Fundplätze ermöglicht wird.

Dazu gehören die Geländebegehung Survey , die Luftbildarchäologie und geophysikalische Methoden Geoelektrik , elektromagnetische Induktion, geomagnetische Kartierung sowie Bodenradar und LIDAR.

Ebenfalls prospektiv einsetzen lässt sich die Phosphatanalyse. Eingeleitet wird eine Ausgrabung durch archäologische Voruntersuchungen.

Zum Einsatz kommen hier Suchgräben, magnetische Sondierung, Bodenwiderstandsmessung, Luftbilder und andere Methoden der Bodenforschung.

Die Voruntersuchungen dienen dazu, sich ein Bild der potenziellen Grabungsstelle zu machen, um die eigentliche Grabung besser planen zu können.

Über Notgrabungen , auch Rettungsgrabungen genannt, versucht die archäologische Denkmalpflege diese Befunde vor ihrer endgültigen Zerstörung auszuwerten.

Bei der Grabung werden verschiedene Grabungstechniken angewandt. Eine moderne Grabung ist befundorientiert, d. Da jede Ausgrabung zur Zerstörung eines Befundes führt, soll eine exakte Dokumentation den Fundplatz, zumindest auf dem Papier, auch später bis ins Detail rekonstruierbar machen.

Die Bauforschung ist ein wesentlicher Teil sowohl der klassischen Archäologie als auch der Archäologie des Mittelalters ; wohingegen sie in der Ur- und Frühgeschichte mangels aufgehend erhaltener Bauwerke nur eine untergeordnete Rolle spielt.

Eine der Dokumentationsmethoden ist die Photogrammetrie. Gerade am sehr populären Beispiel der Gletschermumie Ötzi ist zu erkennen, dass die Ausgrabung nur einen Bruchteil der archäologischen Arbeit darstellt.

Der entdeckte Fund wird bis heute wissenschaftlich untersucht. Die Typologie ist die Klassifikation von Objekten nach Kriterien von Form und Material.

Sie ist grundlegend für die Einordnung des Fundmaterials, da sie Vergleiche mit Fundsituationen an anderen Fundplätzen ermöglicht und zur Grundlage von Kombinationsanalysen zur relativchronologischen Datierung wie zur sozioökonomischen Einordnung und Verbreitungsanalysen wird.

Wie bei der Prospektion und der Altersbestimmung werden auch für Materialbestimmungen moderne naturwissenschaftliche Techniken eingesetzt siehe Archäometrie.

Zur Identifikation und Detailuntersuchung von Artefakten dienen u. Ein Schwerpunkt der Fundanalyse ist die Datierung der Befunde z.

Grab anhand der Funde z. Bei der Altersbestimmung wird zwischen absoluter Chronologie und relativer Chronologie unterschieden.

Die relative Chronologie setzt einen Fund dabei in Bezug zu einem anderen. Ist er jünger, älter oder gar gleichzeitig? Die Methoden der Interpretation sind in der Regel eher geisteswissenschaftlich.

A growing international attention to this exceptional macro-region of the ancient Eurasia makes the Povolzhskaya Arkheologiya journal a reputable platform, where specialists from different countries — from Finland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and Moldova to Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Mongolia — to exchange their opinions and ideas.

Dear colleagues, please consider for Dear colleagues, please take note of the change in the paper submission procedure from Editorial board, Editorial council.

Subscription, indexation and distribution.

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